There are 5 factors influencing the stomata apertures, light, temperature, carbon dioxide, water contents and plant hormone.
Light, especially red and blue light are effective for opening the stomata. Temperature during 20-25C are suitable for opening the stomata. The stomata open when the carbon dioxide is enriched, and enough water contents. ABA affect stomata closing and Cytokinin affect stomata opening.
I write about the mechanism of stomata apertures below. Stomata are opened when the guard cells are turgid or it is closed when the guard cells go limp. It related the ion such as K, Cl, Na. When there are enrich ion in the guard cells, water flow in the guard cells and then guard cells will be turgid. When there are not enrich ion in the guard cells, water flow out the guard cells and then guard cells will be limp.
Photosynthesis is a process to use light energy to make sugar and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water. Chemical formula is here, 6CO₂ + 6H₂O → C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6O₂.
Photosynthesis separates two chemical reaction pathway, light reaction and Calvin cycle. The light reaction produces the ATP and NADPH from light energy and it occurs on thylakoid membranes. Calvin cycle produces the sugar especially glucoses using ATP, NADPH and CO₂ in the stroma.
Furthermore, light reaction separates two pathway, cyclic electron flow and noncyclic electron flow. Cyclic electron flow uses photosystem1 which uses P700, chlorophyll, and the ATP changed to ADP in this process. Noncyclic electron flow uses photosystem2 which uses P680 chlorophyll.
Calvin cycle produces glucoses and it takes 6 turns and uses 18 ATP and 12 NADPH. The enzyme Rubisco enables carbon dioxide to combine with a 5-carbon sugar known as Ribulose biphosphate.
Water absorption is important process for plants because water is essential for plants to live. In vascular plants, mainly water is absorbed by roots then the water uptake to the xylem to leaf.
Water can be absorbed by two methods, active absorption and passive absorption. Active absorption uses ATP energy to against the concentration gradients. Passive absorption is occurred along the concentration gradients.
There are 3 pathways on the water movements in roots, apoplast pathway, transmembrane pathway and symplast pathway.
Apoplast pathway is the majority pathway to absorb the water. Water flow through in the cell walls.
In transmembrane and symplast pathway, water flow through in the cytoplasm. Especially in symplast, water flow into plasmodesmata to cytoplasm.
Then, water uptake in xylem by transpiration pull. Mesophyll cells within leaf are in direct connect with atmosphere via all the air spaces in the leaf.